The following is an excerpt from a webpage that is no longer published: https://web.archive.org/web/20141110085859/http://ab.mec.edu/jamestown/shiplife.html
History Channel. “2:20 / 2:55 America the Story of Us: Life in Jamestown.” YouTube, YouTube, 23 Apr. 2010, www.youtube.com/watch?v=ssS6UoBoiuc.
John, Smith. “Captain John Smith Describes the Voyage of the First Jamestown Colonists - American Memory Timeline- Classroom Presentation: Teacher
Resources.” Library of Congress, www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/colonial/jamestwn
Marks, Archibald Andrew. “Jamestown Questions and Answers.” Jamestown-Yorktown Foundation.
Warfieldian. “JamestownShips.” Wikimedia Commons, Wikimedia Foundation, 15 June 2007, commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:JamestownShips.jpg.
By Cookie Davis
By 1854, James Birch and his partner, Frank Stevens, organized the California Stage Company by purchasing or merging 80% of all the stage lines in California. Both men became very wealthy and this enabled Birch to return to the east coast and build a mansion for his wife (whom he met while still in Providence).
Eventually, the California Stage Company also won a contract to deliver mail from San Antonio, Texas to San Diego, California. In 1857 Birch took another trip to the east coast traveling by ship to Panama, crossed the isthmus in a train, and then was aboard another paddle steamwheel on his way to New York when it was caught in a storm and sunk. He was only thirty years old when he died.
His widow, Julia, eventually married his best friend and business partner, Frank Stevens.
*The term "teamster" began as a term used to describe someone who drove a team of horses, oxen or mules pulling a wagon. These wagons were used to deliver materials and packages including everything from lumber to clothing. When engines were invented and trucks took over the job of hauling things, the truck drivers kept the name "teamster." That is why truck drivers today are known as teamsters.
Cool, Robert N. “The Swansea Stage Coach.” The Swansea Historical Society, 1976.
“James E. Birch (Entrepreneur).” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 10 Nov. 2018, en.wikipedia.org/wiki
Smith, Waddell F. “The Boom Days.” Western Publications, Inc., 1966.
James Birch photo courtesy of the Alpine Historical Society
Stage coach photo courtesy of Pixabay
This article was originally titled Honey Bees not Native to North America published November 11, 1999 on the blog On Six Legs. The author is former Purdue University Professor of Entomology, Tom Turpin. The blog and this particular post are no longer available online. Changes to this article were made to simplify vocabulary for younger students and to update newly released scientific information regarding honey bees in North America.
There was a close association between the westward migration of Europeans and the establishment of wild colonies of honey bees. Native Americans were said to have noticed that shortly after colonies of honey bees were discovered, white settlers would not be far behind.
When did the bees arrive?
So when did the first colonies of honey bees arrive in the New World? These bees probably came from England and arrived in Virginia in 1622. By 1639 colonies of honey bees were found throughout the woods in Massachusetts. Some of the colonists who arrived at Plymouth likely brought bees, as well as sheep, cows and chickens on the trip across the Atlantic.
Once the bees were introduced, they, like other insects, were able to increase their range (the area in which they could live) by moving into new territory. Honey bees increase colony numbers by swarming. Swarms are able to fly several miles to establish a new colony.
Such migrating swarms brought honey bees to Connecticut and Pennsylvania by the mid 1650s. Honey bees had swarmed their way into Michigan by 1776 and Missouri, Indiana, Iowa and Illinois by 1800. In the next 20 years or so, bees had made their way to Arkansas, Oklahoma and Texas, as well as Wisconsin.
Further westward migration of the honey bee was slow. In 1843 it was reported that there were no honey bees beyond Kansas. However, as Mormons migrated to Utah, bees came with them. The first bees were taken there on the back of a wagon in 1848. So successful was this introduction, it was reported that a large amount of honey was being made in the southern counties of Utah. By 1852 the swarms had reached Nevada.
This information is taken from the site OutsideMom.com that is no longer published.
Every outdoor child should be equipped with a few basic outdoor skills along with a little "survival kit" to keep in their backpacks.
A survival kit is something that can be built upon over time. As you get older you can add more and more items (like fire starting supplies) if you how to use them safely and correctly.
Here is a sample of a minimal survival kit:
Flashlight and batteries
Water purification tablets
Small signaling mirror
Assuming you have these few basic tools, below are some good beginner skills to go over. The S.T.O.P. acronym (Stop, Think, Observe, Plan) is a great place to start, and is a helpful tool for kids when it comes time to remembering what they should do.
to do. You will probably have a meltdown when you realize you are lost. But then, understand how important it is to stay calm or become calm. It’s hard to think and plan unless you’re able to be rational. Recall everything you have been taught and go from there.
Look through your backpack. What do you have with you that can be of use? Whistle? Use it often. Food? Save it until you’re really hungry. Water? Save it until you’re really thirsty. Rope? That could be used for making a shelter. Knife? That might come in handy.
Also observe your surroundings. Does the place look at all familiar? Is there a good place for a shelter? Water nearby? A place where you can safely get up for a better view?
Now what? Take time to think about what you need to do first. Ok, You’ve blown your whistle for the last 20 minutes. Now what. It’s getting late, maybe you should think about a shelter.
Water is the most important survival item you can have; it’s also a hard one for little kids, which is why kids' packs should have plenty of water and you should understand the need to ration it if you become lost. Your body can still function with little or no food for weeks, but it can only last a few days without water.
The problem is, unless you find yourself lost next to a water source you shouldn’t exactly wander off looking for water and get even more lost. However, if it has been a day or two and you’re still lost and out of water, it’s going to be worth it to wander off and try to find some.
The easiest thing for little kids to use and carry is water purification tablets. If you're going to be hiking, make sure you have some in your pack and know how to use them. Also make sure you know when to start venturing out to find water.
If you’re lost in the wild, surviving is, of course, your first priority. Your second should be getting yourself out of there! There are several safe and easy ways you can make a signal.
By Cookie Davis
In December of 1777, George Washington had about 12,000 troops in southeastern Pennsylvania preparing their winter camp. According to an order given by General Washington, the soldiers at Valley Forge were divided into groups of twelve to build huts to house themselves during the winter of 1777-1778.
Since it was already winter when they arrived, it was critical that they construct the huts quickly. Therefore, General Washington offered a prize of twelve dollars to the group in each regiment who finished their hut first.
The dimensions of the huts were as follows: 12 feet by 16 feet for the perimeter and 6 feet high. The sides were to be made from logs and the roof of planks. The logs were chinked with mud (they filled all the spaces between the logs with mud). No requirements were given for the floors, and in fact most had none.
Chimneys also were not required, but the fireplaces were made from fieldstones and the cracks were filled with mud. There were no windows just a single door. Twelve bunks were built into the sides of the walls. When the spring finally arrived, Washington ordered the chinking in the logs removed to increase the air circulation within the huts.
Although precise recommendations had been given as to how and what to use for building materials, with 12,000 men needing housing quickly, they were forced to use whatever was the most convenient. Also, the carpentry expertise of the men in the individual regiments varied greatly. As a result, some soldiers fared better than others. The northern regiments tended to be more skilled in building huts that were more effective in keeping out the wind and the cold. The southern soldiers were not aware of what to expect from a northern winter!
Much of the information on this page was taken from the Westford Public Schools' site entitled "Valley Forge Huts" that is no longer published.
Lord, Phil. “Research and Documentation.” Valley Forge Hut Model, 12 Sept. 2015, www.living-in-the-past.com/hut.html.
Nardini, Marge, and Cheryl Pulkowski. “Valley Forge Huts.” The American Revolution, The Wayback Machine Rovi Corporation, Nov. 2000, web.archive.org/web
Valley Forge National Historical Park General Management Plan. “Overview of History and Significance.” National Parks Service, U.S. Department of the Interior,
This information was taken from the Fairfax County Public Schools site which is no longer published.
Field crickets are the crickets everyone sees and hears in late summer and fall. They grow up to an inch long, and are black and brown or sometimes red. They have large hind legs and two cerci (spiky things coming out of the back of their abdomens).
Female field crickets also have an ovipositor. An ovipositor is the longer spiky thing (about 3/4 inch) coming from the abdomen between the cerci.
Field crickets live mostly in fields and forest edges.
Why do they chirp?
Once field crickets are fully grown (about a month and a half after they are born) they will look for a mate. Male crickets chirp or "sing" to attract females and as a warning to other males to stay away from their territory. Female crickets can't chirp. The "song" is made by rubbing the front wings together. Since baby crickets are born in the spring, summer means they finally have fully developed wings and are able to rub them together to produce a sound. By the end of summer and beginning of fall as more and more crickets mature, they can be heard—often quite loudly—in the evenings. Females hear the song through tympanum (eardrums) on their front legs. Once a female approaches a male, he will do a move back and forth in a sort of courtship "dance."
For most species of cricket, the warmer the weather, the faster they chirp. One species of cricket, the snowy tree cricket, has been found to have such a regular chirp rate that counting the number of its chirps in 14 seconds and adding 40 will accurately tell you what temperature it is! Field crickets are most active at night. The songs of many males can be heard on summer and fall evenings. The song is usually a high trill played in threes.
After mating, female field crickets look for some damp soil to lay eggs. They inject their ovipositors, like a needle, deep into the soil. She will lay about 50 eggs at a time through her ovipositor. One female can lay over 400 eggs in her short life.
Field cricket eggs hatch in the spring, usually May. Young crickets are called nymphs. Nymphs eat a lot and grow quickly. They will molt (shed their outer skin) eight or more times as they grow up. With each molt, the nymphs look more and more like an adult. Young nymphs basically look like a cricket with no wings.
Field crickets do not survive over the winter. Any adult crickets or nymphs will die when cold weather arrives. Eggs, however, overwinter. They will survive and hatch the following spring.
Field crickets eat plant material, especially seeds, small fruits, and living and dead insects. If they are really hungry, they will even eat each other!
Predators of the field cricket include birds, frogs, toads, turtles, and other insects.
The text on this site was copied from the article What's Motion Sickness from the site kidshealth.org. This page on the site is no longer published.
If you've ever been sick to your stomach while riding in a car, train, airplane, or boat, you know exactly what motion sickness feels like. It's no fun.
To understand motion sickness, it helps to understand a few parts of your body and how they affect the way you feel movement:
The brain gets an instant report from these different parts of your body and tries to put together a total picture about what you are doing just at that moment. But if any of the pieces of this picture don't match, you can get motion sickness.
For example, if you're riding in a car and reading a book, your inner ears and skin receptors will detect that you are moving forward. However, your eyes are looking at a book that isn't moving, and your muscle receptors are telling your brain that you're sitting still. So the brain gets a little confused. Things may begin to feel a little scrambled inside your head at that point.
When this happens, you might feel really tired, dizzy, or sick to your stomach. Sometimes you might even throw up. And if you're feeling scared or anxious, your motion sickness might get even worse.
Avoiding Motion Sickness
To avoid motion sickness:
If you feel this way easily during any kind of movement, it's a good idea to go to the doctor. They will want to make sure there's nothing wrong with your inner ears or any of the other body parts that sense movement.
But for typical motion sickness, your parent may be able to give you medicine before you travel. For some kids, it may help to wear pressure bracelets that can be bought at the drugstore.
If you feel yourself getting sick while you're traveling in a car, it might help if the driver finds a safe spot where you can get out and walk around a little bit. If you can't pull over, make sure you have a plastic bag in the car — just in case!
Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD
Date reviewed: January 2014
This information on this site is taken from the PBS Kids It's My Life site that is no longer published.
What is spaying and neutering?
The terms "spaying" and "neutering" mean the surgical removal of a pet's reproductive organs. Basically, when an animal gets spayed or neutered it will no longer be able to have babies. "Spaying" applies to female animals and "neutering" is used with males. Most people focus on the importance of spaying and neutering dogs and cats, but rabbits are also animals who benefit from this.
Why is spaying and neutering important?
Did you know that:
It has other benefits for your pet, too. Spayed animals have a lower risk of some cancers and other illnesses, and neutered animals don't have as many problems with aggression, fighting, roaming, and certain diseases.
The idea that spaying and neutering is "mean" or doesn't let your pet experience a full life is just a myth! In reality, neutered and spayed pets tend to live happier, healthier, longer lives.
When should your pet be spayed?
Most veterinarians recommend that female cats and dogs be spayed before they're six months old and males between six months to a year old. But it's never too late to have this done, even if your pet has already had a litter or two. If you adopt an animal from a shelter or rescue group, chances are that you won't be able to take him or her home until the operation is performed.
How expensive is it? What if my family can't afford it?
Most animal hospitals will do this surgery for under $100, but you can have it done at a discount or even for free. Call your local shelter or animal control department to see if they offer coupons (sometimes called "vouchers") to help cover the cost of spaying and neutering at area vets. You can also contact SPAY USA at www.spayusa.org or 1-800-248-SPAY (1-800-248-7729) for advice on where to go for help in your town.
But won't I miss out on the fun of having puppies, kittens, or bunnies around?
Well, yes. But remember that animals are little for only a few months. At some point you have to find homes for these babies or commit to keeping them yourself. As they get bigger, they'll require more time and energy, especially if you already have one or more pets. So that's a lot of work for just a short amount of baby animal time! Here's an idea: if you're really dying to have a litter of kittens running around your house, talk to your family about being a temporary "foster home" for rescued baby animals. Many shelters and rescue groups are always in need of these!
By Cookie Davis
Doctors commonly used bloodletting to cure someone of almost any illness from acne to hearing loss, or to keep them from getting an illness. Most often, doctors would cut a vein in the patient's arm or neck to drain their blood. They also used leeches (a type of worm) that would be applied to the patient's skin to suck out the blood. Regardless of the method, the blood was drained until the patient started to faint.
George Washington probably died because of bloodletting. He got a sore throat after riding his horse in the rain and his doctors bled him of 80+ ounces of blood (the average person has about 160-180 ounces). He died a few days later. It is widely believed the bloodletting, at the very least, hastened his death (made it come quicker), doing more harm than good. As scientists learned more and more about the human body, they learned that bloodletting wasn't helpful except in a very few cases. They also learned that bloodletting was often exactly the wrong thing to do, but it took them much longer to learn the right thing to do.
“Bloodletting.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 11 Nov. 2018, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bloodletting.
Cohen, Jennie. “A Brief History of Bloodletting.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 30 May 2012, www.history.com/news/a-brief-history-of-bloodletting.
Markel, Dr. Howard. “Dec. 14, 1799: The Excruciating Final Hours of President George Washington.” PBS, Public Broadcasting Service, 14 Dec. 2014,
Margolies, John. “Barber Pole, Dodge City, Kansas .” Wikimedia Commons, Library of Congress, 14 July 2018,
NULAND, SHERWIN B. “Passions and Tempers: A History of the Humours - Noga Arikha - Books - Review.” The New York Times, The New York Times Company, 8
July 2007, www.nytimes.com/2007/07/08/books/review/Nuland.html?ex=1341547200&en=28b87289415e5d35&ei=5088.
PBS NewsHour. “Bloodletting and Blisters: Solving the Medical Mystery of George Washington's Death.” PBS, NewsHour Productions LLC. , 16 Dec. 2014,
Modify the sentences by taking the "you" out of it and try it again:
If you're a native English speaker or proficient in Modern Standard English, it is probably clear to you that, "I should have breakfast," is the preferred form of the sentence. It just sounds right whether or not we know the reason why.
Here is another example:
Take "Ashoorina" out of the sentence and try it again.
Again, if you're a native English speaker or proficient in Modern Standard English, you probably think "Joaquin went to the store with I," sounds strange.
If it isn't obvious to you which word is correct (according to Modern Standard English) by this method, then understanding whether "I" or "me" is being used as an objective pronoun or a subjective pronoun is necessary.
What are objective and subjective pronouns?
First of all, a pronoun is a word used to replace a noun. My name is Cookie Davis. "Cookie Davis" is a noun. It would be strange and tiring to always use "Cookie Davis" when speaking and writing.
For example, consider the same sentences from the examples above:
It sounds much better and is much easier for me to say these sentences using a pronoun for Cookie Davis.
In the sentences above, "I" and "me" are pronouns for the proper noun "Cookie Davis."
When you are using a pronoun for yourself—when you are using "I" or "me"—and you are the subject of the sentence, you use "I." Some examples:
These are all examples of "I" as the subject of the sentence. "I' am deciding to have breakfast. "I" want to go to the movies. "I" am the subject in each of these, therefore, "I" is a subjective pronoun in these sentences.
When you are using a pronoun for yourself and you are the object of the sentence, use "me" for the pronoun. Some examples:
In each of these examples "me" is the object of the sentence. "Joaquin," "Evelyn," and "They" are the subjects of the sentences and "me" is the object "Joaquin" is going to the store with, "Evelyn" is giving it to, or "They" are hugging. That means "me" is an objective pronoun.
I often struggle to find websites with quick, simple lessons to help kids understand some basic concepts, so I decided to create some of my own for those I can't find elsewhere!